Shooting wolves from aircraft is highly effective, due to increased visibility and direct lines of fire. Afghanistan, and Pakistan, but not India. The historical use of shepherd dogs across Eurasia has been effective against wolf predation, especially when confining sheep in the presence of several livestock guardian dogs.  With perhaps only four proven records of tigers killing wolves, these cases are rare; attacks appear to be competitive rather than predatory in nature. Number of times cited according to CrossRef: Revisiting the Woolly wolf (Canis lupus chanco) phylogeny in Himalaya: Addressing taxonomy, spatial extent and distribution of an ancient lineage in Asia. Wolves increase their rate of scent marking when they encounter the marks of wolves from other packs. On the other hand, wolf diet from the regions of Qinghai–Tibetan Plateau, Inner Mongolia and the Karakoram showed affinities for mostly smaller‐sized prey and livestock, as they were closer to groups of species that had large latitudinal and longitudinal extents.  Cannibalism is not uncommon in wolves during harsh winters, when packs often attack weak or injured wolves and may eat the bodies of dead pack members. This is a fairly new species to have been identified.  The Ancient Romans connected the wolf with their god of war and agriculture Mars, and believed their city's founders, Romulus and Remus, were suckled by a she-wolf. There are no records of coyotes killing wolves, though coyotes may chase wolves if they outnumber them.
It wasn’t until much later when packs of them were found to live in these other regions as well.
 In the Caucasus Mountains, 10% of dogs including livestock guardian dogs, are first generation hybrids.
The adaptability of wolves in human‐dominated landscapes and conflict perceptions in socio‐cultural context may vary. Home range and longitudinal extent (, NMDS plot showing regional prey choices in various zones. |Hokkaido Wolves | Compared with modern wolves, some Pleistocene wolves showed an increase in tooth breakage similar to that seen in the extinct dire wolf. Such attacks typically occur only locally and do not stop until the wolves involved are eliminated.  The variation in diet between wolves living on different continents is based on the variety of hoofed mammals and of available smaller and domesticated prey. They are light tan in color and have gray to them as well. This clade included one sample from Ladakh, nine from the Spiti Valley in Himachal Pradesh, four from Nepal, and two from Tibet.  Similarly, a museum specimen of a wolf from southern China collected in 1963 showed a genome that was 12–14% admixed from this unknown canid.
 Wolves, or even a wolf on its own, will attempt to frighten a herd into panicking and dispersing. Mother wolves do not leave the den for the first few weeks, relying on the fathers to provide food for them and their young. Himalayan wolves avoided livestock where wild prey is available, but habitat encroachment and the depletion of wild prey populations is forecast to lead to conflict with herders. Lone wolves will rarely mark, but newly bonded pairs will scent mark the most. The canine parvovirus, which causes death by dehydration, electrolyte imbalance, and endotoxic shock or sepsis, is largely survivable in wolves, but can be lethal to pups.
The most frequent prey were domestic goats (32%), followed by sheep (30%), yaks (15%), and horses (13%). In Vedic Hinduism, the wolf is a symbol of the night and the daytime quail must escape from its jaws. Wolves here have survived through a history of human interference (Bagchi & Mishra, 2006; Namgail, Fox & Bhatnagar, 2007). The Himalayan wolf lacks a proper morphological analysis.. , A review of the studies on the competitive effects of dogs on sympatric carnivores did not mention any research on competition between dogs and wolves.
 Its MT-ND4L gene commences with the base pairs GTG, whereas all other canids commence with ATG. Canis chanco was the scientific name proposed by John Edward Gray in 1863 who described a skin of a wolf that was shot in Chinese Tartary.  Linnaeus considered the dog to be a separate species from the wolf because of its cauda recurvata—its upturning tail—which is not found in any other canid.  Research into the inheritance of white colour from dogs into wolves has yet to be undertaken. Results showed that they shared a common female ancestor. Wolves living near farms are more vulnerable to the disease than those living in the wilderness, probably because of prolonged contact with infected domestic animal waste. 2. It is listed as endangered in Jammu and Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, and Uttarakhand, where a large portion of the wolf population lives outside the protected area network. Northern Rocky Mountain Wolves |  The breeding pair typically monopolizes food to continue producing pups. In Asia and Europe, their diet is dominated by wild medium-sized hoofed mammals and domestic species. The group determined that the earliest available Latin name is Canis chanco Gray, 1863, but the geographic location of the holotype is unclear. , Wolves move around their territory when hunting, using the same trails for extended periods. The Himalayan wolf or highland wolf, also known as the Woolly wolf or Tibetan wolf also shares its range with another apex predator, the endangered snow leopard (Panthera uncia). Kenai Peninsula Wolves |  Wolves become mature at the age of two years and sexually mature from the age of three years.  Across Eurasia, wolves prey mostly on moose, red deer, roe deer and wild boar. The Big Bad Wolf is portrayed as a villain capable of imitating human speech and disguising itself with human clothing. In winter, when snow accumulation forces their prey into valleys, interactions between the two species become more likely.  In 1923, Japanese zoologist Yoshio Abe proposed separating the wolves of the Korean Peninsula from C. chanco as a separate species, C. coreanus, because of their comparatively narrower muzzle. Molecular Recalcitrance of Hair Passing the Digestive System of a Canid, http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2018-2.RLTS.T3746A119623865.en, http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2015-2.RLTS.T7961A45172099.en. They are skilled hunters and know it can be hard to find their next meal.  How wolves react to humans depends largely on their prior experience with people: wolves lacking any negative experience of humans, or which are food-conditioned, may show little fear of people.  In 2004, the Himalayan wolf population in India was estimated to consist of 350 individuals ranging across an area of about 70,000 km2 (27,000 sq mi).  They are born blind and deaf and are covered in short soft grayish-brown fur. Greenland Wolves |  In Tantric Buddhism, wolves are depicted as inhabitants of graveyards and destroyers of corpses. On this tree, the term “basal” is used to describe a lineage that forms a branch diverging nearest to the common ancestor. A detailed list of the literature used is provided in Tables 1 & 2, Supplementary Material, Annex 2‐3.
Please check your email for instructions on resetting your password. Haryana, Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh. Learn about our remote access options, Department of Animal Ecology & Conservation Biology, Wildlife Institute of India, Dehradun, Uttarakhand, India. We used non‐metric dimensional scaling (NMDS) with six environmental variables and ANOSIM with Bray–Curtis similarity index in PAST software (Hammer, Harper, & Ryan, 2001).
In 2020, further research on the Himalayan wolf indicates that it warrants species-level recognition under the Unified Species Concept, the Differential Fitness Species Concept, and the Biological Species Concept. , During the 19th century, wolves were widespread in many parts of the Holy Land east and west of the Jordan River, but decreased considerably in number between 1964 and 1980, largely due to persecution by farmers.
 Wolves may catch tularemia from lagomorph prey, though its effect on wolves is unknown. Areas like Hustai, Wangchuk and Sarychat‐Ertash where limited grazing pressures exists, natural wild prey can thrive. Equus ferus przewalskii (IVI: 0.94 ± 0.42, Fig.  Once the breeding pair has finished eating, the rest of the family tears off pieces of the carcass and transports them to secluded areas where they can eat in peace. As this study was based on captive-bred zoo specimens that had descended from only two females, these samples were not considered to be representative.
 This contrasts with the commonly held belief that larger packs benefit from cooperative hunting to bring down large game.  Wolf interactions with American black bears are much rarer because of differences in habitat preferences.
, The wolf has very dense and fluffy winter fur, with a short undercoat and long, coarse guard hairs.  The Dena'ina believed wolves were once men and viewed them as brothers.
, Wolves occurred originally across Eurasia and North America. , Wolves may interact and compete with felids, such as the Eurasian lynx, which may feed on smaller prey where wolves are present and may be suppressed by large wolf populations.  By autumn, the pups are mature enough to accompany the adults on hunts for large prey.
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